Preterm infants represented 11.0% of male and 9.6% of female births to Latina women and 10.2% and 9.3% of those to other women. Figure 1 shows the expected monthly counts under the counterfactual scenario in which the 2016 election did not take place as well as the observed counts of male and female preterm births to Latina women during the test period.
There is a significant lack of literature on the home life experience of Latina women and how it may change with immigration to the United States. In the United States, female employment has become an increasingly important determinant of family economic well-being, especially among disadvantaged populations such as Latinas. Female employment offers these women more autonomy, the chance to support themselves without relying on a spouse.
Through HBWA you can connect with other Hispanic businesswomen to network for customers, capital, special expertise, technology, products, production capacity, or distribution channels. Since 1997, the total number of Hispanic business owners has increased by 82%.
The Hispanic paradox refers to the medical research indicating that Latino immigrants enter the United States with better health, on average, than the average American citizen, but lose this health benefit the longer they reside in the United States. It is important to note that this health paradox affects both male and female populations of Latinos. Likewise, immigrant https://mauritiusparadisetours.com/what-the-experts-arent-saying-about-dominican-republic-girls-and-how-it-affects-you/ are found to have a lower infant mortality rate than U.S. born women. This has been explained by the tendency for Hispanic women to continue breastfeeding for a longer amount of time. The 1970s marked the first decade in which a gender shift occurred in Mexican migration.
Situations like these are widespread, especially among households in which Black and Latina women live, according to Household Pulse Survey data. (See Figure 3.) About 1 in 3 Black and Latina women in households with incomes under $35,000 reported not being able to pay the previous month’s rent on time. And about half of Black and Latina women reported having little or no confidence that they would be able to pay next month’s rent, compared to less than a third of white women. Nationally, Black and Latina women have suffered a disproportionate loss of employment income in the current crisis due to their overrepresentation in retail and other service jobs, many of which ended abruptly when the pandemic started.
These women come into the United States looking for improved employment or educational opportunities, making them much more vulnerable to coercion and false job opportunities offered by traffickers. Additionally, many immigrant women do not understand their rights, or are faced with threats of deportation. Much of this trafficking is hard to detect, as it is not usually visible to the public or governmental eye. Currently, there are limited resources for Latina immigrants in the United States.
Among Hispanic Americans, country of origin also has a strong impact on labor force participation. Mora and Dávila also find significant differences based on the generation of immigration. The wage gap between second-generation Hispanic workers and second-generation white workers is narrower than the gap between first-generation Hispanic and white workers.5 But beyond this drop from the first to the second generation, the gap doesn’t narrow further for later generations.
She has been the recipient of many awards throughout her professional career. Rossina joined Union Bank in 1981, and during her tenure, she has served in various positions in small business lending, Special Assets management and Multicultural Markets. Prior to 2020, Rossina managed the charitable contributions and community outreach in Orange County, San Diego and the Inland Empire; thus, making her familiar with the issues affecting most markets in Southern California. Vanessa Casillas immigrated into the United States at the age of One from El Salvador with a single mother seeking asylum with no support, as her Father was killed in the Salvadorian civil war 2 months prior. Vanessa as a Latina immigrant who grew up in poverty in the streets of South- Central LA, knew first-hand what it was to struggle.
Collective bargaining agreements also mimic pay transparency by clearly defining pay scales for different positions.26 As such, pay gaps are lower for union workers. Similarly, banning salary history helps eliminate outright wage discrimination by preventing workers from carrying around lower wages as they change jobs. If a worker is underpaid in one job, and their next job bases their new salary on previous salary, then workers who are more likely to face discriminatory pay at any given employment may face the cumulative effects of this discrimination throughout their careers. Both collective bargaining and banning salary history seek to balance information asymmetries that benefit employers.
Though theCenter for American Progressreports that the level of educational attainment for Latinas has risen in the past few years, graduation rates for Latinas, at 31.3% in 2008, are still significantly lower than graduation rates for white women, at 45.8%. In 2011, the American Civil Liberties Unionmaintainedthat mass incarceration has an exceptional effect on Latinas and black women, who are typically the primary caregivers for their children and are also disproportionately victimized. Driven largely by the War on Drugs, women of color, particularly black and Latina women, comprise the fastest-growing sector of the prison population. Patterns of female family structure are found to be similar in Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic, and tend to be more matrifocal. Conversely, Mexican and Costa Rican women are often migrating from a patriarchal husband-wife system, with just 13% and 22% of households headed by women in these countries, respectively.
DeVarona helped adapt the intervention for Latina women and participated in all aspects of data collection. L. Er directed the study, supervised the acquisition of data, analyzed and interpreted the data, and helped write the article, J.
The results of our first robustness check in which we estimated a transfer function with all the cohorts and variables produced essentially the same results as our primary test. As described in more detail in eTables 1 to 3 in the Supplement, the election-variable coefficients for male and female births remained significantly greater than 0. The results of our second robustness check, in which we used the methods of Chang et al33 to detect level shifts, slope changes, and spike-and-decay sequences in the data, also converged with our primary tests.